Thursday, December 26, 2019

Human Resource Department Of Indiana State University

It is certainly not uncommon for organizations to struggle when developing their new employee orientation process. As is often the case in many organizations of varying sizes, there tends to exists a mix of employees who clearly see the need and benefits of a formal orientation process, and a contingency of employees who do not. Generally speaking, however, research has proven that when employees are afforded the time and effort required on the part of senior managers to develop a well-structured orientation process they stand to not only gain confidence in their abilities to perform the required tasks related to their position, but also gain a sense of security and confidence for the organization as a whole. One particular strategy that an organization may employee in developing new staff, is formulating a specific training program by eliciting the input from department managers. For example, the human resource department of Indiana State University allows for their department manag ers to be explained the overall process of orientating a new faculty member into their university system through a program called â€Å"ISUNEW† (â€Å"A Supervisor’s Guide to the New Employee Welcome Program, n.d.). By its intended design, the program allows for department supervisors to collectively be explained the expectations of the university pertaining to the orientation of new employees through one universal venue. This methodology of delivery reduces the amount of confusion surrounding whatShow MoreRelatedDispute System Design1638 Words   |  7 PagesSummary The grievance procedure for current employees at Indiana State University applies to full-time with benefits (37.5/40 hours per week) or regular part-time with benefits (20 or more hours per week). 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She eventually attained an Honorary Doctorates: Doctor of Science from Georgetown University (1976) and Incarnate Word College in San Antonio, Texas (1980); Doctor of Humane Letters from Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, Illinois (1988); Doctor Honoris Causae, University of Missouri-Columbia 1998 ( Dorothea Orem formal idea in nursing concepts of

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

A P by John Updike and Araby by James Joyce - 573 Words

In the short story AP, John Updike uses the power of desire as his theme. The girls, knowing it was not ethical, walk into the market with bathing suits and catch the eyes of the male workers. As the girls are acting innocent, they walk around as the guys just watch what the girls are going to do next. In many ways, taunting the males and walking in the grocery store was going against conformity, thus, leaving the girls embarrassed and shy when they are confronted by the manager of the store. In a fit of anger and trying to be a hero for the ladies, a boy clerk tells the manager he quits because his manager blatantly told the girls that they needed to come clothed to the store next time. In the text The Art of John Updikes A P† it states, Outraged that his manager, Lengel, has made that pretty girl blush and wanting to demonstrate his refusal of such demeaning authority, (Saldivar, 1997). The girls were giving the males in the store a sense of false hope just getting attention for their own self-fulfillment. Like in Araby the boy falls in love with a girl and feels like it is his responsibility and duty to make her happy. He feels as if she is the only thing in his life that makes him happy and living in a boring, small town is what brings him down. The settings of the two stories are similar in that both of the protagonist, which are the boys, live in small towns filled with elderly people. They both feel as if there is not a way out and they have both livedShow MoreRelatedAP by John Updike and Araby by James Joyce Essay examples856 Words   |  4 PagesThe two stories I chose are AP by John Updike and Araby by James Joyce. Both stories tell a tale of social and philosophical differences of middle class adolescent boys, when compared to the adults in the stories. In the short story AP by John Updike, the story is told in a first person narrative of a teenage boy working as a cashier in an AP grocery store on a hot summer day. The story begins with the teenage boy named Sammy becoming preoccupied by a group of three teenage girls that walkRead MoreJohn Updike s A P And James Joyce s Araby1877 Words   |  8 PagesComing-of-age is a chapter that every individual must inevitably trek through in order to grow and mature into one’s own self. In John Updike’s AP and James Joyce’s Araby, the theme of growth permeates throughout both narratives as their respective protagonists fabricate an ideal world from their own naive perspectives, only to shed their ignorant fantasies about how they believe to understand that the world can bend to their decisions to truly understand the cruelty behind world they live in: reachingRead MoreEssay on Comparison of A P by John Updike and Araby by James Joyce681 Words   |  3 Pages John Updikes â€Å"A P† and James Joyces â€Å"Araby† are very similar. The theme of the two stories is about a young man who is interested in figuring out the difference between reality and the fantasies of romance that play in his head and of the mistaken thoughts each has about their world, the girls, and themselves. One of the main similarities between the two stories is the fact that the main character has built up unrealistic expectations of women. Both characters have focused upon one girl inRead MoreThe Stages of Maturation in James Joyce’s Araby John Updikes AP from the Authors Perspective902 Words   |  4 PagesWhen comparing the views of both James Joyce and John Updike on maturation from adolescence to adulthood it will be important to continually compare two of their similar works in Joyce’s â€Å"Araby† and Updike’s â€Å"AP†. James Joyce and John Updike follow similar views with the latter using Joyce as a foundation and following in similar footsteps; both authors follow a process of maturation based on the allure of love, while doing it at different stages of each of the protagonists’ lives resulting in similarRead More Love and Disillusionment in Araby and A and P Essay980 Words   |  4 PagesLove and Disillusionment in â€Å"Araby by James Joyce and â€Å"A and P by John Updike â€Å"Araby by James Joyce and â€Å"A and P by John Updike are both short stories in which the central characters are in love with women who don’t even know it. The Araby story started sad and ended sadder, however, the â€Å"A and P† story started happy and ended with a heroic act that went unnoticed. The main characters both experience new situations and truths of which they were not previously aware. Both stories willRead More The Decline of Chivalry Explored in Araby and AP Essay1211 Words   |  5 PagesRomantic gestures have been seen as a useful motive to win hearts of women for centuries. However, as society constantly changes, the effectiveness of these chivalrous acts has diminished. In James Joyce’s â€Å"Araby† and John Updike’s â€Å"AP†, this theory is explored, both telling the story of a boy whose efforts to impress the girl of their desires fail. As said by Well’s in his critical analysis of these stories, â€Å"Both the protagonists have come to realize that romantic gestures—in fact, that the wholeRead MoreEpiphany Vs Araby833 Words   |  4 Pagesthe modern age are â€Å"AP† by John Updike and â€Å"Araby† by James Joyce. The story â€Å"AP† by John Updike is about an eighteen year old boy named Sammy who works at the AP and finds an attraction to three girls who repeatedly walk into the AP in bathing suits, after the girls are embarrassed by the manager Sammy does the heroic act of quitting in honor of the three girls. The short story â€Å"Araby† by James Joyce is about a boy who take on the quest of going to a bazaar called Araby and buying his crush aRead More Comparing Updikes AP and Joyces Araby Essay1336 Words   |  6 PagesComparing Updikes A P and Joyces Araby  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   John Updikes A P and James Joyces Araby share many of the same literary traits. The primary focus of the two stories revolves around a young man who is compelled to decipher the difference between cruel reality and the fantasies of romance that play in his head. That the man does, indeed, discover the difference is what sets him off into emotional collapse. One of the main similarities between the two stories is the fact that the mainRead MoreA P And Araby By James Joyce1200 Words   |  5 Pages AP by John Updike and Araby by James Joyce are two short stories that have multiple differences and similarities. AP is about a teenager and his lust for young ladies and Araby is about a young boy who had a crush on a older girl. I will be comparing and contrasting the portrayal of women, love and epiphany in the two short stories AP and Araby. I believe women are portrayed negatively in AP. I have came to this conclusion because I believe Sammy treats the â€Å"Queenie† positively but treatsRead MoreCompare And Contrast Araby And A P Short Story999 Words   |  4 Pagesstories â€Å"AP† by John Updike and â€Å"Araby† by James Joyce both reflect coming of age stories. In the story AP, the narrator, Sammy quits his job to stand up for the three girls wearing â€Å"nothing but their bathing suits†() In the story Araby, the narrator shows himself growing up through discovering his sexuality. In the stories AP and Araby there are strong similarities in the plot and setting, however they are also different in the imagery and figurative language. The setting in â€Å"AP† takes place

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

The success of a business organization

Question : What is the success Business Explain with Example ? Answer : Introduction It is often a key requirement for the management of an organization to put in place the most effective strategies which would enhance the flow of processes, proper analysis of performance trends as well as an effective maintenance of the quality standards within the organization. These entire aspects boil down to the concept of operations management within organizations which encompasses the elements of quality control, aggregate planning, productivity and supply chain strategies, an organizations plant layout as well as the process design employed to enhance operations. In this report, we analyze the concept of operations management with reference to the New Mauritius Hotels Limited, a hospitality industry based in the country. Quality Management The New Mauritius Hotels Ltd. is one of the fastest growing organizations working within the field of hospitality in the counter. It operates under the brand name of beachcomber hotels. The organization does not only own but also manages various hotels both within the country and on international fronts for instance in Morocco (Bernhard, 2008). Due to the nature of its organizational structure, all the companys subsidiaries operate under the same brand name. This strategy enables an easy control of operations in addition to other processes taking place within the company. Quality management is a crucial element effectively considered by the organizations management. Just like any other business organization, the NMH LTD incurs a number of costs of quality. The cost of quality in this case involves the costs that the hotel incurs when implementing processes intended at minimizing defects to the products released to the consumers at the end of the production chain. The hotel also provides various services to a variety of clients. As such, there is an inevitable need for professionalization and personalization of process in order to ensure that services are offered to clients at the highest quality levels (Brotherton and Wood, 2008). Based on the research findings about the organization, it was deduced the costs of quality incurred by the New Mauritius Hotel Ltd. can be categorized into four main types namely; prevention costs, appraisal costs, external failure costs and internal failure costs. To begin with, the prevention costs are the costs incurred by the hotel in in a bid to prevent poor quality products or services from reaching the consumers. In order to minimize the defects on the final products, the hotel management uses various tools such as staff training and exposure, maintenance engineering as well as the strategy of process control. Through the process control tools, it is possible to deduce and hence adjust the processes that are out of control. Such situations may be as a results of wrong interpretations by machines and miscalibration which may result in wrong component ratios and hence a defect on the final product (Carliss, 2000). Each of these stages may involve the use of resource and human expertise like the quality circles hence the presence of the costs. The second cost of quality is the appraisal cost. Before transferring the final products to the consumer, they are always taken through a rigorous process of inspection. This level is always aimed at identifying products with defects and hence removing them from the final shipment. The process involves a team of inspectors hence the resources and amounts used in appreciating the services of the food inspectors at the New Mauritius Hotels Ltd amounts to the appraisal costs. The third type of cost is the internal failure cost (PKF Hospitality Research, 2011). The hotel incurs this cost when the defects detected are to be eliminated before the products reach the consumers. This process may include re-processing the products or adjusting the quality levels which may alter the downtime. When the quality control processes are effective, the defects can be detected at an early stage before handing the products to the consumers (Cohen, 2008). When the goods reach the consumers with defects, then they are likely to be rejected or returned for re processing by the consumers. Such a scenario leads to product recalls, replacements as well as repairs. The costs incurred by the company during this process are referred to as external failure costs. In a bid to minimize the occurrence of these costs through the reduction of defects, the New Mauritius Hotel Ltd has upheld various total quality management strategies. One of the most common strategies applied by the organization involves the use of quality circles. The quality circles involve individuals who meet regularly to deliberate on methods of improving quality (Collings and Wood, 2009). The outcome of these meetings is presented to the board who in return implement them at the right stages of production in order to reduce or completely remove the defects. The other approach in aiding the TQM drive involves the use of statistical process control methodologies. Through this strategy, the less effective elements during the production process are identified and replaced with more result oriented methods. The approach in this case may involve replacing old machines, doing away with outdated menus and cuisines and introducing food stuffs and additional services which adequately m eet the consumers demands. The hotel administration which also uses the just in time system also conducts empowerment of suppliers in addition to staff training and motivation on quality issues. The technical support given to the suppliers plays a crucial role in ensuring the materials received by the organization for the production process are of the right quality and required standards (Connell and Page, 2010). In order to improve quality, the hotel can invest more on the quality circles and increase the number of personnel whose sole duty within the organization will involve quality enhancement. The company can also carry out more staff empowerment procedures through training exhibitions and conferences. Through these avenues, the workers are exposed on the need to stay responsible in their lines of operation and ensure quality standards in the processes they are involved in (Chase, 2007). Finally, quality within the company can also be improved my ensuring the right machines and other resources are used during the production process. Bad machines, for instance, may lead to miscalibration, mistiming and improper mixing of ingredients leading to low quality outcomes. Process Design The hotel which is one of the largest companies listed in the country stock exchange market uses a standard process of production across all the hotels owned and managed by the organization. The production process involves various channels since the organization does not only deal with foodstuffs, drinks and beverages. The hotel also offers other hospitality services which include overnight accommodation and on-site restaurants. In the production of food, the process basically starts form the kitchen staff where raw materials are received. The personnel then prepare the meals under the guidance of clearly stated recipes and outlines depending on the cuisine in use. To ensure the quality of the final products, the ready foods are taken through a series of inspection processes by qualified personnel operating within the quality circles. Once a menu has been passed as satisfactory, the food is then passed to the consumers. This basically ends the chain of the production process (Daft an d Armstrong, 2009). Apart from the outdated manual food processing methods which involve the use of human force, the hotel management has since introduced alternative methods in the production process. These approaches are aimed at improving the quality of products and services availed to the consumers at the end of the day. In the past, the hotel management mainly used human power in most phases of the production process (Giddens, 2008). With the emergence of technology, the organization has secured more state of the machines to replace the formerly used human force. Despite the fact that these machines still rely on human operation, they have greatly reduced the downtime and improved the speed with which the foods are prepared. The alternative methods have also been crucial in enhancing the quality of production since minimal errors are made by machines as compared to cases involving the use of human effort. In addition, the alternative methods have greatly reduced production costs incurred by the org anization. For instance with the emergence of food preparation machines, the number of workers have been cut down which in turn lowers the costs the organization would incur in a bid to reward them (Domine, 2008). In order to transform the raw materials into finished products, the company mainly uses three types of production process. First of all, the job production process is employed to minimize irregularities and ensure that the experts concentrate on one particular production before passing their attention to the other. This process may involve either an individual or a group. The second type used by the company is batch production. In this case, a variety of products are produced at the same time within one production process. For instance, the hotel management prepares food stuff and beverages as well as drinks within the same production system. The machines are regulated and programmed so that they produce various foodstuffs at different levels of the production process (Edmondson, 2006). The last type of production used by the organization is referred to as flow production. It is the basic approach used by most hotels affiliated to this organization. This type involves the flow of pro cesses from one end to the very last. For instance, the raw materials are received and passed through various physical and chemical processes in a continuous flow of activities. In order to reduce the costs involved in production as well as improve on the time take to complete the various production processes, there is need for adjustments on the organizations approaches. To begin with, the organization ought to replace the human labor with more machine operated procedures. Using machines instead of man power in the production process would not only make the work easier but also ensure that the production duration is reduced. In addition, using machines reduces the likelihood of defects occurring on the final products which in turn reduces production costs and maximizes the return on investment (Edwards and Edwards, 2007). The second approach that would help on enhancing the processes within the organization would be proper maintenance of current resources. This idea involves the constant servicing of machines and replacement of old ones with new ones. The approach reduces the occurrence of quality issues that would accompany the use of faulty machines in th e production process. The third method would involve staff empowerment. The human resource form the basic part of the production process, In addition to servicing the machines, there is an inevitable need for staff empowerment and motivation (Everett, 2004). This can be achieved through training, conferences and exhibitions where the production team gets their skills horned and new ideas put across to them. Furthermore, the organization needs to continuously motivate the workers through stable reward schemes based on performance and achievement of quality standards. Rewarding good performers in the production process would definitely encourage the other members within the team to constructively engage in the various production processes. This in turn enhances the outcome of these process which results in an overall improvement in the organizational performance. Aggregate planning The organization is keen on maintaining a stable market for its products and services. As such, the operations manager through the help of the other portion of the management team careful analyses the market situation, consumer preferences and customer feedbacks in order to deduce the right demand options to purse. The company pursues pricing as a demand option. By carefully regulating the prices of the goods and services offered in the various hotels across the country, the organization has managed a firm client base (Grey, 2013). The second demand option is promotion which is mainly done through online platforms in addition to other approaches. The company uses the media to inform the users of its products and services as well as the adjustments in prices. Promotion is also carried out through discounts on products, free samples and advertisement mainly on television, radio and newspapers. The third demand option currently pursued by the New Mauritius Hotels Ltd is new demand. In t his case, the management team analyses the trends in the market and customer response in order to identify the most current demand trends. The products and services are therefore prepared such that they adequately address this new demand (Harper, 2009). The organization uses a number of capacity options in a bid to maintain the right standards in the process. An example involves maintaining a stead output rate through staff empowerment, management of knowledge and dissemination of skills. There also the approach of hiring and laying off of workers which ensures that the organization only has the number needed within the human resource and not a lesser value. The other capacity option involves subcontracting. In this case the hotel management contracts out projects to other developers outside its human resource fraternity. The approach is effective when the project is a temporary process hence no need of permanent employment. The company also uses inventories which does not only enhance accountability but also places the company records in a comprehensible manner (Johnson and Robinson, 2007). These records can in turn be used to identify the areas in need of adjustment hence an eventual improvement in quality. Lastly, the organizatio n maintains a level workforce and uses a combination of decision variables. Despite the hierarchies in the organizational structure, all workers through their team leaders can have their opinions incorporated in the decision making process. This does not only create a level workforce but also improves the quality of the work environment and hence an improvement in performance (Plunkett, 2012). Both demand and capacity options have a special link to a companys understanding of its market. The demand option pursued by a company has a special way of influencing the nature of reception given to the products or services. At the same time, the capacity options undertaken by the company do not only change situations within the workplace but also influences the output. In order to enhance the organizations capacity planning, it would be a crucial step to come up with a standard pricing method for both products and services across all the hotels managed by the company. This enhances consistency (Joseph, 2004). In addition the pricing policies ought to be in conformation with the government set standards. Observing this avoids the penalties associated with breach of authorities. The company can also develop and improve their online platforms in order to ensure that it is interactive and user friendly. This would make the process of promotion easier, faster and more effective. In ord er to maintain a level workforce, the company needs to practice more of knowledge management to aid in the dissemination and transmission of ideas from one employee to another. This improves the general quality of the final production outcomes (Katz, 2003). To improve the organizations capacity planning, there would be more need to empower the employees through training and incentives. Capacity planning could also be improved by enhancing the infrastructure within the organization and on its environs. Effective communication is a crucial element in a success production system. Through effective tools aided by the incorporation of technology, information can be easily passed to the workers and consumers. Through such interactions, the clients feedbacks can be used to note demand trends especially the new demands. The organization can then establish its capacity planning strategies with reference to these feedbacks. Capacity planning could also be improved by enhancing a proper work e nvironment through the provision of the necessary resources and maintenance of good health and safety standards. This strategy plays a key role in enabling the New Mauritius Hotels Ltd. to maintain an output rate which is not only stable but also consistent (Malakooti, 2013). Productivity and Supply Chain Strategy The New Mauritius Hotels Ltd largely depends on the two main types of production ratios used by most organizations in the corporate world. Firstly, the organization sets the total productivity ratio. In this case, the value of all output is related to the value of all input hence the ratio is given by total output over total input. The second type of ratio set by the organization is the partial productivity ratio. In this type, the organization relates the value of the total output with the value of some of the main categories of the input. The ratio is therefore obtained by dividing the total output with the partial input (Medlik, 2003). By deducing the relationship between the value of total inputs and outputs, it can be possible to note the areas in which the company can adjust in a bid to enhance its productivity. Productivity can be improved through variation of the output value. This implies increasing the output value while keeping the input values at lower levels leads to a higher productivity ratio. The output of the workers and the machines can be improved through appropriate working environment (Montgomery, 2012). This strategy may involve human resource motivation as well as maintenance, repair and replacement of old or obsolete machines. In addition, the organization can increase its output value through staff empowerment which may involve approaches such as training and knowledge management. Improvement of infrastructure, incorporation of more IT related tools in operation and use of effective communication methods are other methods the company can use to enhance productivity (Norman, 2013). Due to the dynamic nature of the demand trends and the global economic situation, it has always been the desire of every manager to come up with supply chains strategies that are aimed at reducing the cost of inventory and production. One of the supply chain strategies at the New Mauritius Hotel involve adopting a supply chain plan which is driven by the current demand schedules, insights as well as shaping. In addition, the company management has developed a supply chain which is adaptive to the business environment, consumer needs and the logistics involved in production (Pannerselvam, 2004). This way, the organization ensures that the supply chain used in enhancing operations minimizes on production costs and maximizes the return on investment. The other strategy used by the company involves optimizing the design of the products and services through extensive innovation which in turn increases profitability. The company has also aligned its supply chain with the core organizationa l goals, a strategy which ensures that all operations adequately aid in the achievement of the business objectives. The appropriateness of a supply chai largely depends on its sustainability and the extent to which it enhances profitability within the organization. The current supply chain used by the organization, despite its effectiveness so far can still be improved for better outcomes. To begin with the company leaders ought to embrace sustainability as a core value in the supply chain strategies. This approach may involve meetings by experts and discussion of methods in which the supply chain could be enhanced to achieve better output. Secondly, the companys professionals could use the real time and achievable aspects to obtain quick outcomes. This strategy would be helpful in reducing the consumption of energy, less travel and transportation expense and a minimal and controlled use of resources (Pizam, 2010). In addition, the company management can use approaches such as knowledge management, systematic measurement as well as audit reports to ensure continuous improvements on the operation p rocess. Incorporation of best practices, effective use of knowledge in addition to benchmarking are the other approaches which the companys management can incorporate in order to improve the current supply chain. Lastly, the company managers can device the best strategies for responding to change associated with the ever dynamic market environment. It would therefore be important to come up with flexible supply chain strategies which would easily run in conformation with these changes. Finally, the strategies ought to be such that they support each other. This way the company is likely to incur less cost which mostly comes with complex multi-channel chains. Plant Layout The companys layout takes the shape of a simple straight line flow. The plan adapts to the building design. The layout begins at the receiving dock where shipments containing raw materials, new machines and related resources are received. The materials are then moved to the operating offices consisting of various sub-assemblies characterized by different processes. The flow then proceeds to support, maintenance and finally through quality inspection before the final products are packaged and branded ready for consumption (Pilcher, 2012). The plant lay out incorporated by the organization involves a single line flow. However, it the strategy is relatively rigid and time consuming since the layout gives room for the production of one product at a time. The layout can therefore be improved to involve more sub-assemblies. Through this, it can be possible to produce more than one product at the same time which in turn reduces the cost of production and the time taken to complete the process of production (Roger, 2006). The other suggestion would be to improve the building design such that the sub-assemblies are placed near the production offices to reduce the distance of movement. When the distance between amenities within the layout is reduced, the cost of movement and transportation is in turn minimized too. This strategy would be helpful in doing away with the production costs related to transport and flow of processes within the chain. The plant layout can also be improvement through proper spacing which in turn enhan ces the quality of the working environment. When the working surface is spacious enough, mobility within the organization is equally enhanced. Good spacing reduces congestion and thereby improves the down time. Proper design of amenities has a special way of improving convenience for instance; the components of production are made more accessible. In addition, the plant layout can also be improved by creating a perfect balance between the machine aided operations and the processes involving human effort. The necessary areas in need of adjustment can be identified for instance, the human aided processes can be replaced with more machine oriented approaches to improve the production time and cost. Finally, the New Mauritius Hotels plan layout can be improved through the incorporation of IT in enhancing communication and the general infrastructure within the organization. Instead of the cumbersome physical movements between the phase of production, the organization can use computerized systems through which signals are sent and processes controlled from a central source. SECTION B SCENARIO 1 Year Forecast Demand Actual Demand Forecast error RSFE ABSOLUTE ERROR MAD TRACKING SIGNAL 1 78 71 -7 -7 7 7 -1 2 75 80 5 -2 5 6 -33 3 83 101 18 16 18 10 1.6 4 84 84 0 16 0 7.5 2.1 5 88 60 -28 -12 28 11.6 -1.03 6 85 73 -12 0 12 11.67 0 SCENARIO 2 Year (X) Sales (Units)(Y) 1 100 2 110 3 122 4 130 5 139 6 152 7 164 We use unknown letters to compute the line a= 7 (1*100)+ (2*110)+(3*122)+(4*130)+(5*139)+(6*152)+(7*164) 7 (100+220+366+520+695+912+1148) =27727 b = (1+2+3+4+5+6+7) * (164+152+139+130+122+110+100) 917*28 =25676 c = 7(1+4+9+16+25+36+49) =980 d= sum of squared values of X =140 m= (a-b)/(c-d) 2051/840 =2.44 To obtain the y-intercept e= sum of all values of y =917 f= slope times sum of all x values 2.44 * 28 =68.32 Y-intercept = (e-f)/n =917-68.32 848.68/7 =121.24 The least squares trend line equation will be given b Y = mx = c Y= 2.44X + 121.24 B) From the equation, we can obtain the predicted value for 2008 as follows Y= (2.44*8) + 121.24 =140.76 SCENARIO C In order to come up with the appropriate cost reduction strategies, it is important for the company to establish the cost areas (Vallin, 2006). One short term cost reduction strategy would involve cutting the payroll costs. This can be achieved by outsourcing the non-essential activities. The other short term strategy may involve redesigning the existing processes with the main aim of eliminating duplication. Doing away with repeated processes plays a crucial role in reducing time wastage and related costs (Wren, 2007). On the other hand, the long term strategies can involve making use of the current technology as well as the latest thinking within the industry. Incorporating new technological advancements into the business operation may take time hence the process ought to undertaken at a reasonable pace. The second long term strategy would be to agree to long term contracts with suppliers which ensures consistency in the quality of goods supplies. This eventually minimizes defects and hence the related costs (Zabel, 2003). Conclusion Organizational performance is always pegged on a number of factors which must always be considered and implemented by the management. One of the core requirements for a smooth flow in activities within an organization would be skilled and dedicated human resource. When each member of the work force has a thorough knowledge in their field of operation then the quality of delivery is also likely to be held. In addition, there is need for the availability of the enough resources not only to aid in the production process but also ensure that the work environment is healthy and conducive enough. From the report above, it is evident that operations management encompasses a variety of activities within an organization. Each of these strategies plays a pivotal role in enhancing organizational performance. Managers therefore ought to install the most effective strategies References Bernhard, H. (2008) Six lessons for the corporate classroom. Harvard Business Review, 66(5), pp. 12-56. Brotherton, B. and Wood, C. (2008) SAGE Handbook of Hospitality Management. Los Angeles: Sage. Carliss Y. (2000) Design Rules: The Power of Modularity. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Cohen, M. (2008) Productivity and Efficiency in Human Service Organizations as related to Structure, size and Age. The Academy of Management Journal, 23(1), pp. 21-37. Collings, D. and Wood, G. (2009) Human resource management: London: Routledge. Connell, J. and Page, S. (2010), Event Tourism: Critical Concepts in Tourism, Routledge, New York, NY. Chase, F. (2007) Operations Management for Competitive Advantage. New York: McGraw-Hill. Daft, R. and Armstrong, G. (2009) Organization Theory and Design. Toronto: Nelson. Giddens, M. (2008) Determining Organizational Effectiveness - another look, and an agenda for research. Management Science, 32 (5), pp. 514 --538. Domine, A. (2008) Hotel Management. Konigswinter: Ullmann. Edmondson, B. (2006) Hospitality Leadership: The Cornell Hotel School. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Society of Hotelmen. Edwards, G. and Edwards, S. (2007) Dictionary of Drink: A Guide to Every Type of Beverage, Sutton, UK: Stroud, Everett, E.(2004) Production and Operations Management. New York: Prentice- Hall. Grey, H. (2013) Food and Beverage Market Place. Amenia, NY: Grey House. Harper, S. (2009) Configurations of Organizational Effectiveness and Efficiency. The Academy of Management Journal, 36(6), pp. 13451361. Johnson, H. and Robinson, J. (2007) World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley Joseph, G (2004) Theory and Problems of Operations Management. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Katz, S.H. (2003) Encyclopedia of Operations Management. New York: Scribner. Malakooti, B. (2013) Operations and Production Systems with Multiple Objectives. New York: John Wiley Sons. Medlik, S. (2003) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, Hospitality, Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann. Montgomery, M. (2012) Statistical Quality Control: A Modern Introduction. New York: Willey. Norman, T. (2013) Personnel training and development, Annual Review of Psychology, 22(1), pp. 565602. Pannerselvam, R. (2004) Production and Operations Management. New York: Prentice-Hall Limited. Pizam, A. (2010) International Encyclopedia of Hospitality Management. Boston, MA: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann. Pilcher, J.M. (2012) Oxford Handbook of Food Management. New York: Oxford University Press. PKF Hospitality Research (2011), Trends in the Hotel Industry. New York, NY: PKF Hospitality Research. Plunkett, R (2012) Operations Management . Houston, TX: Plunkett. Roger, W. (2006) Economic Impact of the Attractions Industry. Washington, D.C: TIA Vallin, A. (2006) Total Quality Control. New York: McGraw-Hill. Wren, D. (2007) The Evolution of Management Thought. New York: Wiley. Zabel, D. (2003) The best of the web: hospitality and tourism web sites. Journal of Business Finance Librarianship, 8(4), pp. 167-179.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Medicinal Marijuana A Wonder Drug Or Danger To Society Essays

Medicinal Marijuana: A Wonder Drug Or Danger To Society? Cannabis sativa, most commonly known as marijuana, has been used for recreational and medical purposes for thousands of years. Many have smoked marijuana to experience the drugs psychedelic effects, while others use the drug to treat various illnesses and pain. Within the past century, however, the drugs medicinal value has come under much scrutiny. Those supporting the legalization of marijuana feel that the government has withheld a soothing drug from those who are suffering from severe illnesses, and as a result, these advocates find the government to be uncompassionate to those in pain. Nevertheless, those against the legalization of this drug contest that marijuana has considerable side effects and offers no medicinal benefits to society. These opponents encourage the governments political involvement in the controversy because they feel that, with government funded experiments, the drug can be proven ineffective and unsafe. The best option for todays society, however, is to continue the ban of medicinal marijuana. The legalization of this drug for medical purposes can only lead to future drug addiction, negative side effects, and susceptibility to further damage through recreational use. Essayist Sally Satel suggests that instead of legalizing marijuana, or any other drug, that the best answer is force. She gives a well known example of celebrities and drug use, most recently, the legal problems of Robert Downey Jr. The judge who sentenced him to six months in prison stated, Im going to incarcerate you in a way you wont like, but it may save your life (Satel, For Addicts, Force Is the Best Medicine, 101). Satel, a psychiatrist who treats drug addicts, feels that by keeping them in treatment, the legal consent whether it is forced or not may in fact keep the addicts alive (101). She convinced that the payoff is colossal. These addicts learn the social competence, trust in others and optimism about the future that are the prerequisites for a life without drugs (103). Not only do the patients themselves have a positive effect from the treatment, but the community sees results as well. Numerous large-scale cost-benefit analyses reveal that every dollar spent on drug treatment saves between $2 and $7 on law enforcement, corrections, health care, lost productivity, and welfare (103). With this in mind, it is far more conceivable to force treatment on drug abusers, rather than consenting to their demands by legalizing marijuana, or any other drug. Many have argued about the physical dependence marijuana may cause to those who use the drug. Advocates of legalized marijuana claim that the drug is not addictive, despite much opposition. According to Ron Kadden, A lot of people think its not addictive. [Users] have been told by treatment professionals and friends that they couldnt really be addicted to marijuana (Boyce). Evidence shows otherwise, however, and several studies have been conducted to prove that marijuana is, in fact, an addictive drug. Steven Goldberg of the National Institute on Drug Abuse conducted one of these studies, in which he found that even lab monkeys would seek out marijuanas active chemical, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which causes addiction, and the monkeys learned to give themselves as many as thirty injections within an hour session; however, many remain unconvinced by scientific data (Boyce). If this is so, can personal experience with the addictiveness of the drug change the mind of those who stand firm in the idea that marijuana has no physical dependence? The Director at Haight-Ashbury Detox Center, Darry Inaba, asserts: The main problem were dealing with today is that todays potent form of marijuana is causing a lot more problems than we saw in the the late 80s, we started seeing people coming in, everyone of them on their own volition saying, Help me, I want to stop smoking pot. It is causing me these problemsI want to stop and I cant stop. At our program in San Francisco, we now have about one hundred patients every month who are in treatment specifically for marijuana addiction. So many who claim that marijuana is harmless have to sit down and listen to those people who are the wounded, what we call the walking wounded or the casualties from marijuana use. (Inaba, Cohen, and Holstein 247-248) Should physicians be able to prescribe a drug that will cause the patient not only to suffer from the disease that needs treatment, but also from a drug addiction? Physicians are supposed to aid in the treatment of a patient, not deter their recovery by causing

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Why a Pen is a Pen-According to Aristotle essays

Why a Pen is a Pen-According to Aristotle essays Why the Pen in Your Hand is a Pen Aristotle would agree that the pen in your hand is a pen. According to Aristotle everything is either a substance or an attribute, the pen in your hand is a substance. All substances consist of 2 Ontological moments, matter and form. An object must have matter and form to be accepted as a substance. A substances matter is what it is made of and the form is what makes the substance what it is, both of are needed to make the pen a pen. The matter of the pen is the ink, the plastic, and the ballpoint. The form of the pen is the penness. However, matter and form are not the only essentials Aristotle would use to support the fact that the pen in your hand is a pen. Aristotle Causes would also be used to verify the pens existence. These causes lead to the purpose of a substance. The first cause is known as the Material Cause, which deals with the matter of the substance. The Material Cause of the pen is ink, the plastic, and the ballpoint. The second cause is known as the Formal Cause, which deals with the form of the substance. The Formal Cause of the pen is penness. Both of these Causes make up the third Cause, which is known as the Efficient Cause. The Efficient Cause is the principle of motion or change. The person or machine that produced the pen Source: Looking at Philosophy (3rd Edition) by Donald Palmer (McGraw Hill, 2001) would be the Efficient Cause of the pen. The last Cause is called the Final Cause, this Cause deals with the purpose of a substance. The Final Cause of the pen is to be used for writing. These four causes along with the Ontological moments of a substance help lead to the conclusion that the pen in your hand is a pen. In conclusion the pen in your hand is a pen because it contains matter and form along with the essential causes that lead to its final purpose. ...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Top Easiest College Classes to Choose the Next Semester

Top Easiest College Classes to Choose the Next Semester Its not a secret that some of the college classes are easier than others. Such courses can be your â€Å"grade boosters† or allow you to make your studies less stressful. What are some easy classes to take in college? If you are looking for the list of easy college classes to boost your GPA, this article is just for you. 1. Film Studies/ Film History Film studies usually implies watching movies and analyzing them. Isnt this type of class that you would enjoy? We are sure you would. If there is something easier than watching a few movies a week for a course, tell us immediately. Anyway, film studies courses can bring you an easy A grade. 2. Creative Writing If you like making up stories or if you have a blog that you regularly write posts for, you will probably like the creative writing course. Creative writing is more about developing your imagination and creativity. Many students agree that this course is on the easy side and makes a great contrast to challenging classes in the schedule. You can read more about creative writing in our article. 3. Music or Art Appreciation Some students ask â€Å"What are some easy online college classes?† Art appreciation is not just an easy and exciting class but also one that you can take remotely. This class is all about different music genres and art movements and also about the history of their development. If you need to choose at least one course in arts, this one might be the best fit for you. It doesnt imply any challenging tests but a lot of interesting and exciting art objects to study. 4. Physical Education Physical education might be the easiest class ever. There are a lot of different activities that you can choose from. For example, yoga, aerobics or even archery. The majority of students like physical education as it is easy, fun and healthy. Its not surprising that we also included it into our list of  fun college classes that you would like to have in your weekly schedule. 5. Basic Anthropology For those who are interested in history, anthropology can become a real discovery. It is a class dedicated to social groups, civilizations, and cultures. Its not only very interesting but also very easy as it usually covers basic knowledge on the subject and doesnt require in-depth research from you. 6. Basic Psychology Basic psychology is also one of the classes that the majority of students find relaxing and very interesting to study. If your specialization doesnt imply in-depth psychology or sociology studying, this class is just what you need to have a general understanding of different processes in the human brain, human behavior, and character. It is one of the classes that will be legit useful for your daily life. Basic psychology can be suggested as one of the easy classes for college freshmen to choose without doubts. 7. Public Speaking This course is for everyone who is afraid of public performances and delivering speeches. Not only this class is easy but also very useful for your everyday life. It can help you improve your self-confidence and also  get rid of stage fright. This is the case when taking easy classes in college can be combined with actual benefit. 8. Foreign Language Introduction Studying a foreign language of your choice for one semester isnt that hard. You will start with an alphabet and basic words so this class will be relaxing compared to the rest of your classes. Eventually, even the basic knowledge of another language will add value to your resume in the future. You might even like the language so much that you will continue learning it after the class ends. How to Find Easy College Classes If you wonder how you can know for sure if the class that you are about to choose is easy or not, you might need to investigate the issue. Ask someone who has already taken this class or visit the forum dedicated to your learning institution. Students will definitely tell you if you should take the class or not. Another tip on choosing the easiest college courses is to make your choice and sign up as early as you can. Register when the majority of the places is not taken yet and you have plenty of options to choose from. In other cases, you will have to choose from what is left on the list. Of course, sometimes such unpopular courses turn out to be the easiest. We also have a list of the weirdest college courses ever existed: History of Furniture and Design (George Brown College) that basically implies learning about all the types of chairs and tables, fashion and styles. Elvish, the language of â€Å"Lord of the Rings† (The University of Wisconsin). Admit, you want to take that class to be able to talk to your friend without anyone understanding. Introduction to wines (Taylors University). Sounds too good to be true. Underwater Basket Weaving (Reed College). Wait, what? The History of Surfing (Kapiolani Community College). A course that will tell you about the exiting surfing facts. Or just surfing facts. Ice Cream Short Course (The Pennsylvania State College). Beware: you might need more than a short course. Tree Climbing (Cornell University). For those who want to improve this skill within a college program. The Art of Walking (University of San Francisco). Because you still dont know enough about how you need to walk. Philosophy and Star Trek (Georgetown University). For those who want to live long and prosper. The Joy of Garbage (Santa Clara University). A class that implies studying different types of garbage and methods of its recycling. Would you take some of these courses? Let us know! And dont forget that you need to take the courses that are interesting to you in the first place and which might come in handy in your life or work.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Darlie Routler murder case Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The Darlie Routler murder case - Research Paper Example The death of her sons happened on the night of June 6, 1996. However, several loopholes are evident in the case history that might help Darlie in getting justice. These include murder weapon not traceable, crime scene being tempered badly before securing the place, motive could not be established, among others. However, police investigators argued that Darlie had self-inflicted stab wounds, while she wanted to get rid of her sons, as they did not like her lifestyle. Darlie had a new hope, as Texas Court of Criminal Appeals gave a ruling in June, 2008 for conducting new DNA tests, which could prove her claim of an intruder responsible for the double murder. The new DNA technology may throw fresh light on the evidences that relate to analysis of bloodstains on her nightshirt and socks of the boys. Introduction The case of Darlie Routier is intriguing in many ways, as investigators and prosecutors have not paid heed to the defense pleas for tracing of the missing murder weapon, which is supposed to be knife from the kitchen of Darlie. Although she was convicted for killing her two sons, based on the financial problems her family was facing, Darlie has petitioned before the Texas Criminal Court for retesting of blood samples using the latest DNA technology. The petition of appeals has requested the court to test the bloodstains from tube sock found in the alley, which was not tested earlier. Similarly, investigators had not tested other possible evidence earlier. These included bloodstains on the nightshirt worn by Darlie, blood swabs present on the butcher’s knife in the kitchen of Darlie. While prosecutors had assumed it to be the murder weapon, the testing was not done on this evidence earlier. In addition, there are many loopholes in this case, which may need further investigation, as the court has agreed for DNA retesting. (Direct appeal, 2008) Further to the above, The Texas Criminal Court has laid down, in its order of 13 April 2012, the exact procedu re to be followed for conducting the new DNA tests at the Department of Public Safety Laboratory in Austin, Texas.(Order, 2012) Case Summery and Overview In the absence of any established motive and eyewitness, the case remains a mystery. This is further complicated by the fact that Darlie has continuously denied the charge. However, the fifteen-second â€Å"Silly String† tape, as recorded by a local news station could not establish her innocence. Media had accused Darlie of using sex toys, taking drugs and child abuse. Nevertheless, no evidence could be established to prove these charges. While State prosecutors found it easier to present such arguments to the jury, family and friends describe Darlie as a compassionate female, who cares for her family and others. (The Darlie Routier Case, nd) Prosecution may not be right The police investigation has been doubtful. While only 400 out of total 1000 photos taken from the crime scene were allowed for examination by the defense, the remaining 600 photos had evidence of trampled blood and tempered blood stained items like blankets. There are blood fingerprints of the alleged intruder at the exit along with blood prints on boots that did not belong to any police person. In addition, a sock having a boy’s blood print was found 75 yards away from the home of Darlie. The answer to the question of sock reaching

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Fed Acts to Fix Jobs Market Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Fed Acts to Fix Jobs Market - Article Example Bernanke, Chairman of the Federal Reserve, this move would urge the people to spend more in buying commodities, investments and exports. The Federal Reserve has given its commitment to this program until the job market scenario in the US improves. This move has resulted in heavy investments in the stock market, gold and other such assets and the Dow Jones average for industries reached a new high after a similar rise in 2007. However, this announcement has resulted in a price hike for basic commodities such as oil that has created unease among the people who fear an impending rise in basic essentials. Though the present program is considerably less compared to the $1.25 trillion and $600 billion bond-buying programs which were launched in 2009 and 2010 respectively, the Federal Reserve has further announced that the current program could be extended to buy agency-mortgage securities and other assets if no major improvement is seen in the job market. Though this move has been criticized as being less aggressive by academics and economists, the central bank chairman has argued that the Federal Reserve is doing its best to stimulate the economy and also the present program could be further extended if and when required. The Federal Reserve has mainly aimed its program on those who have been out of employment and are in need of economic security until they find employment. In his address to the media, Mr. Bernanke noted that the longer people are out of work the harder it is to find another job as their work experience is at stake. The central bank has also announced that it would co ntinue its Operation Twist program through which it would buy treasury bonds amounting to $45 billion every month which will be used to fund the mortgage purchases. And if the economic situation does not improve significantly it has proposed to purchase treasury bonds through money printing in addition to purchasing mortgages. In addition it also plans to keep short-term

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Theoretical Frameworks or Perspectives in Psychology Essay Example for Free

Theoretical Frameworks or Perspectives in Psychology Essay Initially psychology was developed using the mental thinking expressed by persons interested in developing the subject of psychology. But John B. Watson differed from that approach and he pioneered the approach in which visible behavior and visible environmental stimulus became the subject of study. B. F. Skinner developed this behavioristic framework further by bringing in the contingent environmental consequences. Behavior is not the outcome of stimulus alone, but it is an outcome determined by the stimulus as well as the contingent environmental consequences of a behavior. This means, there are alternative behaviors for the same stimulus and which behavior is exhibited by a person depends on expected environmental consequences. Cognitive perspective on psychology have developed by arguing that human beings are capable of thinking and concepts related to thinking must be brought into the subject of psychology whose objective is to explain behavior. Even though, one cannot see or observe thinking, still developing concepts related to thinking and using the concepts to explain behavior is required in psychology. Even though one cannot see or observe gravitation, the concept of gravitation is a useful concept in physics. Similarly, concepts related to thinking or cognition are to be developed and used in psychology was the argument of propopents of congitive approach to psychology. The perspectives in psychology have influenced the development of organizational behavior. Cognitive Framework Cognitive approach emphasizes the positive and freewill aspects of human behavior and uses concepts such as expectancy, demand, and intention. Cognition can be simply defined as the act of knowing an item of information. In cognitive framework, cognitions precede behavior and constitute input into the person’s thinking, perception, problem solving, and information processing. The work of Edward Tolman can be used to represent the cognitive theoretical approach. According to Tolman, learning consists of the expectancy that a particular event will lead to a particular consequence. This cognitive concept of expectancy implies that organism is thinking about, or is conscious or aware of the goal and result of a behavior exhibited by it. It means that a person desires a goal and also knows the behavior that will lead to achievement of the goals. In the subject of organizational behavior, cognitive approach dominates the units of analysis such as perception, personality and attitudes, motivation, behavioral decision making and goal setting. Behavioristic Framework Pioneer behaviorists Ivan Pavlov and Jon B. Watson stressed the importance of studying observable behaviors instead of the elusive mind. They advocated that behavior could be best understood in terms of stimulus and response (S-R). They examined the impact of stimulus and felt that learning occurred when the S-R connection was made. Modern behaviorism, that marks its beginning with B. F. Skinner, advocates that behavior in response to a stimulus is contingent on environmental consequences. Thus, it is important to note that behaviortistic approach is based on observable behavior and environmental variables (which are also observable). Social Cognitive Framework Social learning theory takes the position that behavior can best be explained in terms of a continuous reciprocal interaction among cognitive, behavioral, and environmental determinants. The person and the environmental situation do not function as independent units but, in conjunction with behavior itself, reciprocally interact to determine behavior. It means that cognitive variables and environmental variables are relevant, but the experiences generated by previous behavior also partly determine what a person becomes and can do, which, in turn, affects subsequently behavior. A persons cognition or understanding changes according to the experience of consequences of past behavior. Bandura developed social learning theory into the more comprehensive social cognitive theory (SCT). Stajkovic and Luthans have translated this SCT into the theoretical framework for organizational behavior. Social cognitive theory recognizes the importance of behaviorism’s contingent environmental consequences, but also includes cognitive processes of self regulation. The social part acknowledges the social origins of much of human thought and action (what individual learns from society), whereas the cognitive portion recognizes the influential contribution of thought processes to human motivation, attitudes, and action. In social cognitive theoretical framework, organizational participants are at the same time both products and producers of their personality, respective environments, and behaviors. The participants as a group of produce the environment, every individual is a product of the enironment and through his behavior changes the environment for others as well as for himself, every individual is a product of his personality, but also influences his personality as consequence of results of his behavior.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Evolution of the Keyboard Essay -- essays research papers fc

The Physical Evolution of the Keyboard: From Monochord to Harpsichord Since the first person heard the wind whistle through the trees or the sea in a seashell humans have been drawn to sound. Being the oppressive and ingenious species that we are we felt the need to capture these sounds and any others that we could to keep for our own. Eventually people like Pythagoras and gods such as Apollo found that by stretching materials and picking/plucking them that they would produce sounds and that the tighter you stretched these strings the higher the sound would go. These were the early beginnings of the pianoforte.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first ancestor of the modern pianoforte is the monochord (diagram 1). A monochord is a wooden box with a single string stretched lengthwise down the middle. The string sits raised on bridges very dissimilar to those of a violin or cello. These bridges positioned approximately 2 inches in from each end. They are simple and usually triangular shaped pieces of hard durable material such as ebony or walnut. Between these two bridges are two taller bridges that may be moved by each hand to alter the pitch given. The philosopher and mathematician Pythagoras used a monochord to study the fundamentals of sound. The next logical step in this evolutionary chain was as sure as a spoiled child’s demands. Now that I have what I want I want more of it. Thus came the psaltery (diagram 2). The psaltery was a great leap fourth from the monochord. It was a small trapezoid shaped box with many strings stretched over it. However unlike the monochord the psaltery did not have movable bridges to change the pitch while playing and furthermore these bridges were much more like the bridges of modern string instruments. The psaltery was played by picking the strings (which were obviously tuned to different pitches) with the fingers or with a pick. This was an extremely popular instrument in the Middle Ages but as the music got more complicated and simple accompaniment wasn’t enough it was soon swallowed by progress.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Next we come to a point in time where a great leap had to be made. Musicians had made positive steps forward in the way of pitch and time but of only one or two notes at a time. What was needed was an in instrument that gave players control of many pitches simultaneously. The mechanism ... ...;  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  New York, NY: Crown Pub. Inc., 1973.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Donnington, R. Music and its Instruments   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  New York, NY: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1982.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Gaines, James R., Ed. The Lives of the Piano   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  New York, NY: The Hilltown Press Inc., 1981.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Mason, Merle H., Comp. Piano Parts and Their Functions   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Seattle, WA: Piano Technicians Guild, 1977.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Pollens, S. The Early Pianoforte   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Stolba, Marie K. The Development of Western Music   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Rev. Ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Comp., 1998.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  White, William B. Theory & Practice of Piano Construction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  New York, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 1975.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Somputer technology Essay

In modern days, computer technology plays a significant role in our lives. It helps businesses and institutions to provide better services and faster transactions with their clients and customers. Most of the companies are using a computerized-based information system that satisfy the needs and improves the quality of their business. This information system is used to pass information throughout an organization accordingly and help them to access the files in an easy way. Technology is widely used in this generation, that is why using manual system is no longer applicable especially in storing confidential and important records and files. Unfortunately, we discover that along the little institutions like clinics, manual system were still implemented. Because of that ,we have learned that most of them suffered from different problems such as lacking of back-up records of their patients, difficulty in finding files and records, consuming time in manually listing the information of the patients and using a low technology equipment for their records such as logbooks. As a system analyst, we wanted to help a company to improve the quality of their business and solve the present problems they encountered. We have found out that Health Alert Medical and Diagnostic Center in Taytay, Rizal was encountering the said problems above in their clinic. Our aim is to provide them a computerized information system that can help them lessen patient’s waiting time and create a database that would serve as their back-up for the patient’s file and records.These system will be efficient and effective to use compare to the manual system they are using and can satisfy the needs of thier company.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Jesse Owens: The Silent Movement

When America typically thinks about black athletes, they think of the great ones like Michael Jordan, Muhammad Ali, Jackie Robinson, and others in that category. One athlete that is over looked is the great Jesse Owens. It might be that he did not participate in a popular sport like basketball, football or baseball, but he was an exceptionally fast on the track and overcame racial adversity. Jesse Owens impacted athletic world in a positive way throughout his life. From his time at Ohio State to the Olympics the very next year, he was a positive role model and a humble human being when he won.Jesse Owens came from small town folks and that made him who he was during his lifetime in having a good set of core values. With the help of role models throughout Jesse Owens’s life, he showed restraint in not acting out against the racial prejudice, while still dominating the track and field world in the 1930’s. The childhood of Jesse Owens made him to be the man he was during h is college career due to how little Jesse had. Owens was born on September 12, 1913 of Henry and Emma Owens in the little town of Oakville, Alabama.Little did they know that their newborn baby would become one of the greatest track and field athletes to walk the face of the earth. Owens was a sick child and suffered from chronic bronchial congestion because his family was poor and could not properly feed everyone in the family, and they had a lack of heat in the winter. Aside from all the physical problems Owens faced, the racial prejudice that Jesse was born into took a mental toll on him. All of the poverty and destruction that Owens saw made him appreciate and become sensitive to adult success and how important that would become in his life.Later in life Owens would always show a smile when he won and agreed with what the newspapers said about him. Owens once said to an interviewer, â€Å"I try awfully hard for people to like me,† This shows that his childhood experiences positively reinforced his view on success and what it represents to him in life. His early years in Alabama laid the foundation for his success later in life. Young male adolescences are susceptible to a role model or mentor in their life that will immensely impact them on who they grow up to be.Years later Owens moved on to Fairmount Junior High School where it is argued that his track career started and this is where Owens met Charles Riley. Riley was the gym teacher at Owens’s school and Jesse looked up to Riley as a father figure. People would say things about Riley being white and coaching a black teenager but neither Owens nor Riley saw race, they only saw each other as a team on the track. They began to have track practice every morning before school for an hour and by the eighth grade Jesse was participating in junior high track meets.At first Owens’s running form was strained and he had very bad facial expressions due to lack of proper training. Riley coached him to be more fluid and that determination came from the inside of oneself and not from the public around him. This was a major turning point in the track and field career of Owens. Owens learned not to see color at an early age and Charles Riley was the main contributor to that and this shaped Owens into the man that he was. Owens was soon turning into a young man and he was making vast improvements in his speed.Riley timed Owens in the 100 yard dash and he clocked Owens in eleven seconds flat. He did not believe what the watch was telling him so he went and found another watch and clocked Owens at the same time. This proved the fact that Riley had found a very gifted athlete that everyone was searching for and he is teaching him to become a man with values that will help him in the rest of his life. The first records that Owens set were in 1928 when he jumped six feet in the high jump and twenty two and eleven inches in the long jump.Riley then began to tell Owens that he needed to keep training for the next four years. That was Riley’s motto, â€Å"Train for four years from next Friday†. Owens did just this and started perfecting his technique and bettering his consistency during races. The smooth, fluid form of running that is a trademark of Jesse Owens came directly from the training of Charles Riley. While Owens was progressing through his running, he was faced with racial judgment by having a white coach again. People would make judgments on how a white man could never make something out of a black man.Owens and his coach never talked about racial issues because they did not see race, they only saw a partnership on the track. Jesse once said about Riley, â€Å"He trained me to become a man as well as an athlete†¦Coach Riley taught me to behave. His influence on me and many other boys kept us out of trouble. Without his guidance, we could very easily have become wards of the state. † Charles Riley was a father figure to Owens a nd all that Riley taught Owens directly influenced Owens’s future in track and field in a constructive way. After Jesse’s first intercollegiate competition, he sent the watch he won to Charles Riley.This proves that Jesse did not see race color in his coach and mentor and that Owens has grown into a man that does not forget how he got to where he was in his success. Jesse Owens’s success kept on the upward sloping curve once he entered at East Tech High School. Charles Riley became an assistant coach at East Tech High School where Jesse Owens attended. The media described Owens as â€Å"’one-man team,’ ‘a marvel,’ ‘the outstanding individual track man in northeastern Ohio. ’† In the summer coming out of his sophomore year, Owens over estimated his abilities when he tried out for the United States Olympic team.Owens did not make it past the Midwestern preliminaries in Evanston and he then began to read about the four black athletes that did make it to the 1932 Olympics in Los Angeles. Eddie Tolan, Ralph Metcalfe, Edward Gordon, and Cornelius Johnson were the four black athletes that would pave the way to a new era for the black athlete. These four would go on to win three gold medals, one silver medal and bronze medal. This would fuel Owens to achieve what these four athletes just did in front of a world stage. After the 1932 Olympics several European athletes held track meet in Cleveland for local talent and Olympians.This track event proved to be a boost of confidence for the young and upcoming Jesse Owens as he took first in the 100-meter and 200-meter races and placed second in the long jump to the Olympic gold medalist Edward Gordon. This meet helped Jesse in more ways than one. In Owens’s senior track season he never suffered a loss and he also set the long jump record of high school boys at 24 feet 3 and ? inches. The attention was always on Owens at track meets no matter what eve nt he was in and took the spotlight from other racers. This was new to the world because of Owens’s skin color.The world had never paid this much attention to a black athlete. To finish off his high school career at the national Interscholastic Championship meet, Owens won the long jump, set a new world record of 20. 7 seconds in the 220 yard dash, and tied the world record in the 100 yard dash with a time of 9. 4 seconds. East Tech High School won the meet with a total point count of fifty four and Jesse was responsible for thirty of those points. After all of Jesse Owens’s success throughout his astonishing high school career, he had a dilemma on what his next step in life would be and who would lead him on the right path.During this time Ohio State was known for black prejudice and racial policies. This decision to attend Ohio State was debated by the press on a daily basis. Headlines read, â€Å"He will be an asset to any school, so why help advertise an instituti on that majors in prejudice†. Owens was not fazed by these editorials and continued on to attend Ohio State University and become the Buckeye Bullet. Charles Riley still played an important role in Jesse’s life and took Jesse to two track meets in Canada where Owens took first in the 100 meter dash.Jesse had not lost any pace over the summer and had shown that he will only continue to get better throughout his college career. Despite all of the success by being trained by Charles Riley, Owens’s college track coach, Larry Synder, was not happy with the form at which Owens ran. Synder began tweaking all of Jesse’s movements while he ran. All of this change would not hurt Owens in the long run and Jesse would see the benefits soon in his college track career. After all of the years with Charles Riley, Owens has found another mentor to help him on his path to being man.Synder would prove to be a great successor to Riley in Owens’s life. Owens’s c ollege experiences concerning racial injustices would help Owens in the future when he is faced with racial problems. Back in the 1930’s the United States still faced racial injustices in parts of the country and even at Ohio State this was no different. Due to the decline in the economy in 1929, Ohio State had to cut down on staff on lack of funds. This made the teacher to student ratio too large to accommodate Owens’s needs in the classroom and this led to Jesse not receiving good grades.Also there was a shortage of dormitories for students. The White students were assigned to the dorms; Owens had to room a half mile away from campus in an apartment with three other black athletes. This is some of the issues that Jesse had to overcome in order for him become successful. Another issue that Owens had to face was that he was not able to compete in some of the meets his freshman year due to academics and an ankle injury. At a dual meet Owens set a new Ohio State record a t the long Jump and in the 120 yard sprint. Larry Synder described Owens as a golden future for Ohio State’s track future.At the Big Ten Freshman meet in Columbus, Owens won all three events that he entered. He set new records in the 100-yard dash at 9. 6 seconds, 220-yard sprint in 21 seconds flat and a long jump distance of 24 feet and 10 inches. This success continued on to his sophomore year. In Owens’s first Big Ten varsity meet he won three out of his four events. This was a tremendous accomplishment for the young man and a rung on his ladder to success. Anyone concerned in the track and field world would never forget the day of May 25, 1935 in Ann Arbor, Michigan and neither would Jesse Owens.On this spectacular day Owens broke three world records and tied another within the time of an hour. He broke the world records in the 220-yard sprint, 220-yard low hurdle, long jump and tied the world record in the 100-yard dash. The next day in a Cleveland news paper it r ead, â€Å"the 12,000 spectators were alternately stunned into silence and then moved to tremendous salvos of applause when the Buckeye ace staged his almost unbelievable show†. Despite all of the racial troubles during those times, Jesses’ old, white track coach Charles sat in the stand and cried while Owens performed that day.This shows that people saw past color and just admired the person on the inside. Despite all of Owens’s success, his toughest times in life were just around the corner. Jesse Owens has always held his head when ever questioned about his views on racial discrimination around the world, but when the 1936 Berlin Olympics came around Owens was in no position not to say anything and finally spoke out. This is the only time that Owens ever verbally spoke against racial problems. In a short radio interview in November Jesse said, â€Å"if there is discrimination against minorities in Germany then we must withdraw from the Olympics. After all of the years of not speaking out, Owens finally spoke what he believed needed to be said. Once Larry Synder heard about this he strongly encouraged Owens to refrain from taking a side on the matter because Owens was on top of the world right now in the track and field world. The black press really dissected what Synder said to Owens and all the controversy that it brought upon Owens. The black press was then confronted by Synder and why they did not cover the story about the Sugar Bowl Meet in New Orleans.Jesse Owens and other black athletes were not invited to the sugar bowl, but yet no one was suggesting that those games be cancelled like the Berlin games. Synder commented on the issue, â€Å"Why should we oppose Germany for doing something that we do right here at home? † This comment by Synder really opened the eyes of the American people on the issue of discrimination in athletics. During the indoor track season Owens and his black teammates were denied admittance to resta urants. This is the real life discrimination that Owens finally faced.During all of these challenging times for Owens, he held his head high and tried to be the best man that he could he could be. With all of these racial distractions around Owens, he still had a job and that was to continue to be as fast as he could to win the Olympics in Berlin. Despite the slow start in Owens’s junior season at Ohio State in the indoor portion, he took off in the spring due to his hard work and determination. During the season Owens ran in five consecutive meets and broke world, conference or local records in all of them. It seemed as if Owens was unstoppable and no one would be able to compete on the level that he was on.Ten black athletes made the Olympic team for track and field and would later be called the â€Å"Black Auxiliaries†. All of these black competitors would prove to be superior over their competition at Berlin. With all of the excitement towards the Olympics and what it holds, it was still during the great depression and funding for the Olympics was not on top of the list. Most of the spending was raised by colleges and similar organizations and even exhibition events were held in Europe to ensure that the United States track and field team would be in Berlin to compete with the world’s best.According to Owens, while on the boat ride over to Europe, senior black athletes had meeting saying that they were going to the Olympics to run and jump, not to debate politics. It did not help that during the opening ceremonies everyone in the stands rose and gave the â€Å"Heil Hitler† salute and the Nazi symbol dominated the scene as did German pride. This would not faze Owens and he kept concentrated on his goal of winning multiple gold medals. Owens would show his displeasure with the Hitler’s views of Aryan race superiority by winning four gold medals.Jesse Owens had become an amazing man in his talents on the track and the way he presents himself off the track as well in not acting out to the race problems at college. These traits would be seen throughout the Olympics. To prepare for the Olympics, Herr Hitler made the grounds as beautiful as it was possible. He spent great amounts of money to upgrade the image of Germany during the time the games were held. The political controversy started on the first day of the games with Hitler shaking hands with two German gold medalists and the Finish team that finished first, second, and third.But When Owens’s teammate Cornelius Johnson won the high jump Hitler was nowhere to be found. Did Herr Hitler leave because Johnson just proved his Nordic supremacy and Aryan aristocracy theory wrong? Many feel this is the case, but according to officials Herr Hitler was scheduled to leave at the time he did. When Cornelius saw that Herr Hitler was leaving he just smiled and grinned as the first day of the track and field came to a close. The feature event for the track and field competition was hands down the 100-meter and Owens was in no mood to disappoint the crowd.In the semi-finals for the 100-meter Owens broke the world record with a time of 10. 2 seconds but was soon dismissed due to a back wind. To put a nail in the coffin for Herr Hitler’s Aryan views, two African Americans took first and second in the 100-meter sprint. It was Owens who won first and Metcalfe who took second. This would be the first of four gold medals for the young Jesse Owens. The day after is now known as Black Tuesday due the qualify heats that Owens and two other African American teammates dominated. Owens usually excelled at the long jump, but he cut it very close in his qualifying.He scratched his first two attempts to qualify for the finals. On his final qualifying attempt he soared to an astonishing twenty six feet. It was the first time that anyone had ever jumped twenty six feet. Owens was used to breaking records and just looked to improve on his next ju mps. On Owens’s last and final jump he cleared an unheard of distance of twenty-six feet and five inches. This broke both the Olympic and World records. An Olympic record had been broken twice in one day by an African American and Hitler could not do anything to stop it.The World is finally seeing what African American athletes are capable of. Jesse easily won his third Gold medal in the 200-meter sprint with a world record time of 20. 7 seconds. He won the crowd over with his third medal, but he would never win over Herr Hitler. The fourth and final Medal for Owens would come on the 400-meter relay team. Normally Owens did not this event, but due to an injury on the team Jesse was nominated by his teammates to run and that is exactly what Jesse did. The American team Soared to victory over the other competitors.The â€Å"Black Auxiliaries† were running away with most of the medals for the United States track and field team with six out of ten medals. This Olympics wou ld go down in history for political reasons concerning the Aryan race and for the records Owens broke. Owens had overcome much adversary in his life and the Olympics were what he strived for his whole life. Jesse Owens is one of America’s greatest athletes and will always be remembered for his triumphs at the 1936 Berlin Olympics winning four Gold Medals.Owens did not have the easiest road to his success because of political, legal and health problems, but he fought through them with prosperity. His various role models in life including Charles Riley, Ralf Metcalfe and Larry Snyder helped Owens overcome the racial injustices of the time and molded Owens in to the great runner he was. Owens later in life died in March of 1980 due to lung Cancer. From the small town in Alabama, to the great Olympic Games in Berlin, Germany, Jesse Owens was an amazing athlete and just as amazing individual.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Scientific method Essay Example

Scientific method Essay Example Scientific method Essay Scientific method Essay In todays society we use science without even knowing it, because we dont relate what we do, where we go, and things that happen to science much less how the scientific method is used in everyday life. The scientific method gives us a precise answer to investigative questions and precise aanswers to those questions. Because of science our children and grandchildren will study the findings in our research of our day and learning more scientist study the world around them. There are 5 steps to the scientific method: . Make observations. 2. Propose a hypothesis. 3. Design and perform an experiment to test the hypothesis. 4. Analyze your data to determine whether to accept or reject the hypothesis. 5. If necessary, propose and test a new hypothesis. By using these steps we can make accurate conclusions instead of assumptions form the discovery of DNA February 28, 1953, by Watson and Crick who made history at Cambridge University in the Cavendish Laboratory. Its because of this discovery that cold case files have been closed and the criminal behind bars and the families can be at rest now. This pressure stems from the action common in childhood and adolescence that one works with friends, rather than the reality of adult life in which one is not necessarily friends with coworkers (Cohen, 1994). Teachers may even feel that secondary students will be rebellious if they are forced to work in groups that are not of their own choosing (Cohen, 1994). When teachers grapple with this question, they confront a decisive and determining factor of successful cooperative learning and the complications that may arise in classroom settings. In a recent casebook for teachers about group work in the lassoer, 38% of the cases concerned difficulties teachers face creating groups (Sultan, Alton, Whitlock, 1998). When assigning group work, teachers must decide whether to allow students to form their own groups or whether to place students in groups through either a random or systematic allocation process. Prior research has examined how these approaches for corning groups affect the group experience by comparing grades on projects, tests, and exams (e. G. Leek 1999; Mightiest 2002; van deer Alan Smith and Spindle 2007; Swanson et al 1998), by analyzing student responses to questionnaires e. G. , Chapman et al 2006; Oddball et al 2007), and by synthesizing findings in prior psychology and organizational behavior research (e. G. , Bryant and Labeling 20060). The objectives of all this group work in a classroom setting are that students will (a) learn the importance of the four Cos of teamworkcommunication, collaboration, coope ration, and compromise (Kitchenware, 1997) and (b) be better prepared to enter the group-oriented workplace. However, using group projects in a class can also have significant drawbacks (e. G. Ashram, 2004; Bator,Wallboard, Krishna, 1997; Comer, 995). Common problems with group projects include free riders (I. E. , students who do not do the work but get credit because of the teams efforts), grade inflation because of some students getting higher grades than normal, lack of exposure to all aspects of a project, and difficulties related to group dynamics. To avoid many of the pitfalls of group projects, instructors should make every effort to structure, implement, and control group projects in an extremely intentional and well-thought- out manner (Chapman Van Oaken, 2001). Most teachers use one of two methods to sign students to groups: students select their own group members or the teacher forms students to groups. A teacher might form a group to practice self monitoring with a group of students. We understand the concern with group works. And seawater. We agree that group works are difficult to do. As always, it is up to the teacher to implement the program in a manner that is engaging and will allow for all students to be successful. Appear to first select friends to work with, not Just acquaintances, and then, if necessary, make additions to the group based on someones seating proximity or by adding students who are known as good group members. It is an informal primary group of students who share a similar or equal status. Members of a particular group often have similar interests and backgrounds, bonded by the premise of sameness. It is quite easy for the teacher to administer, and some evidence suggests that it may lead to better group dynamics and outcomes (e. G. , Bacon, Stewart, Silver, 1999; Mellow, 1993; Strong Anderson, 1990). This research paper will show if the students of Notre Dame of Greater Manila will be more successful if the teacher will Oromo their group, or if the students will let the students to form their own group. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: The basis for determining whether which of one the two formed groups is more preferred by the students is by conducting a survey. This study aims to know the effectiveness of choosing our own group mates or the choice of teacher. Specifically, it aims to answer the if. Questions: What is the difference if the students or the teachers will choose the group members? What are the advantages and disadvantages if: a. The students will choose their group? B. The teacher will choose their group? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The choice of group mates is a very important factor in accomplishing a project. Cooperation should always exist between group members in order to produce good results. This will only happen if the members have good relationships with each other. Usually, friends are the ones comfortable with each other. Having friends as group mates will surely fit in to this criterion. However, friends may tend to be distracted in making the project. Having the teacher choose ones group mates may also be considered so that the intelligent students in the class may be distributed to efferent groups. This will ensure that all groups will have a leader/ guide in making the project. Many other factors should be looked at in order to determine which is really more effective. It is therefore imperative to establish whether having friends as group mates is more effective or not. The aim of this research is to determine the opinions of the two parties involved in this problem, the teachers and the students. These opinions will be crucial in the conclusion that will be made regarding the problem. The results of this research may be given to the teachers so that they will eave a basis for the decisions that they will make in assigning group members. In this study, questionnaires will be used to determine the advantages and disadvantages of having friends as group mates. The questionnaires will consist of ten questions. The types of questions that will be used are: multiple choice, yes or no, and free response. These will help the researchers assess the effectiveness of choosing ones own group mates. The population will be composed of both male and female students of section Mark. Also, interviews will be conducted in order to determine the opinions of the teachers which are also involved in this problem. Their stand on this will be an important factor since they are the ones who actually see the results of the projects produced by the groups. In this part, the population will consist of 2 male and 2 female teachers of section Mark. The limitation of this research is that it will be only applicable to section Mark since the population of both the survey and the interviews are composed of students and teachers only of the said section. Further studies which may consist of a larger population may be inducted in order to state a conclusion which will be applicable to all high school students. DEFINITION OF TERMS 1. Groupings a planned arrangement of things, people, etc. , within a group 2. Group mate A person with whom one is in close association; an associate. . Interview is a conversation between two people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. 4. Opinion is a subjective belief, and is the result of emotion or interpretation of facts. An opinion may be supported by an argument, although people may draw opposing pinions from the same set of facts. Opinions rarely change without new arguments being presented. 5. Population is all the organisms that both belong to the same species and live in the same geographical area. The area that is used to define the population is such that inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area and more probable than cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. Other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case. . Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method. The primary purpose for basic research is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. 8. Survey is a method used to collect in a systematic way, information from a sample of individuals.